Smoke Flow Viz

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Smoke visualization, illuminated by a laser sheet, shows a 2D slice from an axisymmetric jet as it breaks down to turbulence. The flow is laminar upon exiting the nozzle, but the high velocity at the edge of the jet and low velocity of the surrounding air causes shear that leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. This instability leads to the formation of small vortices that grow as they are advected downstream until they are large enough to interrupt the jet and it breaks down into fully turbulent flow. (Video credit: B. O. Anderson and J. H. Jensen)

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