Here’s a neat bit of fluid dynamics derived from a day at the beach! Our experiment begins with well-mixed (and likely compacted) sand grains and sea water in a bottle. When flipped, the sand layer sits at the top of the bottle with the water layer beneath.
Very quickly new layers establish themselves in the bottle. The lower half of the bottle turns into a turbulent churn of water and sand, topped by a thin air bubble, then the thick sand layer, and finally, a layer of filtered water. That air bubble beneath the sand means that the sand layer is compacted enough that surface tension keeps the air from being able to squeeze through the grains. On the other hand, water is able to filter through, eventually making it into that upper region. The compact layer of sand is supported in the bottle by force chains running through the largest grains, which is why only fine sediment settles down through the turbulent layer at this point.
Eventually, the top sand layer erodes enough that it can no longer support its weight, and the sand collapses. As the grains settle out, we end up with fine sediment on the bottom (as previously discussed), followed by a layer of coarse sand from the erosion and collapse of the sand layer, topped with a layer of very fine grains that — due to their light weight — are the very last to settle out of the water. I love that such a simple seaside experiment contains such scientific depth! (Video and submission credit: M. Schich; special thanks to Nathalie V. for helpful input)