Air Entrainment

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When a liquid jet falls into a pool, air is often entrained along with the liquid, creating a cavity and, often, bubbles. Shown above is video of a low-speed laminar jet entering a quiescent pool. The jet appears to entrain a thin film of gas, which then breaks up in a three-dimensional fashion, despite the symmetry of the incoming jet.  As the speed of the incoming jet is increased and turbulence is introduced, the resulting air entrainment becomes violent and chaotic. For additional information and videos, see Kiger and Duncan 2012 and their supplemental videos. (Video credit: K. Kiger and J. Duncan)

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