In 2018, Mars was enveloped by a global dust storm that lasted for months. Although such storms had been seen before, the 2018 storm offered an unprecedented opportunity for observation from five orbiting spacecraft and two operating landers. As researchers comb through that data, they’re gaining new insights into the mechanisms that drive these extreme events.
At NASA Ames, a team of researchers used observations of dust columns as input to a simulation of Mars’ global climate, then watched as the digital storm unfolded. Simulations like these have an important advantage over observations: the simulations allow scientists to track the transport of dust from one region to another.
That dust tracking is critical for some of the team’s results. They found feedback patterns between dust lifting and deposition in different regions. For example, early in the storm dust was largely supplied from the Arabia/Sabaea regions, but once that dust was deposited in the Tharsis region, it kicked off a massive lifting event from Tharsis that put twice as much dust into the atmosphere as had landed there. Later, dust deposited back in Arabia by the Tharsis lofting generated new dust uplifts. As long as more dust got lifted than deposited, the intense storms continued. (Image credits: NASA, T. Bertrand/A. Kling/NASA Ames; research credit: T. Bertrand et al.; see also JGR Planets and AGU; submitted by Kam-Yung Soh)