One major problem that has plagued supersonic aircraft is their noise. The Concorde – thus far the only supersonic commercial airliner – was plagued with noise complaints that ultimately restricted its usability. Noise reduction is a major area of inquiry in aerospace, and the video below shows one experiment trying to understand the connections between supersonic flow and noise.
Above you see a supersonic, Mach 1.5 microjet emanating from a nozzle at the top of the image. The jet is hitting a flat plate at the bottom of the image. Just beyond nozzle’s exit, you can see the X-shape of shock waves inside the jet. The position of that X is oscillating up and down.
In the background, you can see horizontal light and dark lines traveling up and down. Those horizontal lines in the background are acoustic waves. When they hit the bottom plate, they reflect and travel upward until they hit another surface (outside the picture) and reflect back down. As they travel, they interact with the jet, causing those X-shaped shock waves to move up and down. This coupling between flow and acoustic waves makes the jet much louder – up to 140 dB – than it would be otherwise.
Researchers hope that unraveling the physics of simpler systems like this one will help them quiet more complicated aircraft. (Image and video credit: F. Zigunov et al.)