Marangoni Flows

Differences in surface tension cause fluid motion through the Marangoni effect. Because an area with higher surface tension pulls more strongly on nearby liquid than an area of low surface tension, fluid will flow toward areas of higher surface tension. Here surfactants, shown in white, are constantly injected onto a layer of water dyed blue. You can also see the flow in motion in this video. Outside of the central source flow, the pattern features lots of 2D mushroom-like shapes reminiscent of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. But these shapes are driven by variations in surface tension rather than unstable density variations. For more, check out the original paper or learn about other examples of Marangoni effect. (Photo credit: M. Roché et al.)

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