Swimming Sandfish Lizards

Sandfish lizards can “swim” through granular flows like sand using an undulating, sinusoidal motion. Having studied this motion, engineers have built a robot that swims similarly through large glass beads and have now created a numerical simulation of the physics that matches the measured forces on the swimmer to within 8%. This type of flow is, in some respects, tougher than actual fluids because individual particles have to followed, while in most of fluid mechanics, we can use the continuum assumption to treat a liquid or gas as a continuous medium. #

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