Since the 1970s, fluid dynamicists have chased the idea that fish swim in schools for hydrodynamic advantage. The original 2D conception of the idea placed fish in a diamond pattern so that their wakes would constructively interfere and improve swimming efficiency. In nature, that exact pattern is rarely seen, possibly due to 3D effects or the difficulty of maintaining the exact orientation. Fish do, however, show signs of grouping themselves for efficiency – especially when they’re forced to swim quickly.
A recent study found that tetras, a type of small fish often used as pets, prefer a staggered diamond configuration (left) when free-swimming at low speeds around one body length per second. At higher speeds, around four body lengths per second, groups of tetras preferred a side-by-side or “phalanx” configuration (right). Here the fish tended to synchronize their tail-beat frequency with their neighbors, essentially working together for a mutually beneficial wake structure. The researchers found that this configuration was much more efficient than a lone swimmer or uncoordinated group, implying that fish do school for energy-savings when they’re swimming fast. (Image and research credit: I. Ashraf et al., source; via Hakai; submitted by Kam-Yung Soh)