When a droplet impacts, it’s not unusual for converging ripples to form an upward jet, like the one seen here. But under the right circumstances, jets can form downward, too. This study looks at the ultrafast jets that can form beneath an impacting Leidenfrost drop.
These Leidenfrost drops are striking a surface much hotter than their boiling point, so a large vapor cavity forms quickly beneath them. Using x-ray imaging, the researchers were able to capture the dynamics of this cavity’s formation and collapse (Image 2). The field of view in the animation shows only a portion of the drop’s cavity, so Image 3 may help you orient relative to the drop at large.
Initially, we see the center of the droplet hitting the surface, followed by the fast growth of a vapor cavity. Rippling capillary waves converge on top of the cavity, creating a pinch-off. From there, a bubble rises up while a fast jet shoots downward. (Image credit: water jet – A. Min, others – S. Lee et al.; research credit: S. Lee et al.)