The evaporation of a simple droplet holds far more complexity than one would expect. If you look closely at the edge of the drop, there’s a tiny, beautiful display at work. It begins with small variations in surface tension at the contact line where solid, liquid, and gas meet. These could be caused by local temperature or concentration differences; either way, the gradient in surface tension creates a flow. It starts out as a series of microjets spaced evenly around the contact line (left).
As the microjets strengthen, they merge into larger and larger vortical structures (right). This kind of feature – large structures emerging from smaller ones – is known as an inverse cascade. Fluid dynamicists have traditionally studied the classic (turbulent) energy cascade, where kinetic energy moves from large scales into smaller ones, but researchers are beginning to recognize more situations where the inverse cascade occurs, such as in the storms of Jupiter. (Image and research credit: A. Ghasemi et al., source)