When we watch sands running through an hourglass, we think their flow rate is constant. In other words, the same number of grains falls through the neck at the beginning and the end. In many practical granular flows, like those through industrial hoppers (left), this is not the case. Instead, emptying those containers involves a surge near the end where the discharge rate is higher.
The surge is related to the interstitial fluid – the air, water, or other fluid in the space between the grains. On the right, you see an experiment in which brown grains submerged in green-dyed water are emptied. The dark layer is dyed water initially at the top of the grains. As the container drains, that dyed layer moves down more rapidly than the grains; this indicates that the interstitial fluid is actually being pumped by the draining of the grains. Researchers think this is an important factor affecting the final surge. (Image credits: hopper – T. Cizauskas; discharge graph – J. Koivisto and D. Durian, source; research credit: J. Koivisto and D. Durian; submitted by Marc A)