Phenomena

Underwater Gunfire

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When a projectile is fired from a gun or other firearm, it is propelled by the expansion of high-temperature, high-pressure gases resulting from the combustion of a propellant, like gunpowder, inside the weapon. The explosive expansion of these gases transfers momentum to the bullet; however, the gases will continue to expand outward from the gun even after the bullet is fired. They do so in the form of a supersonic blast wave; it’s this blast wave that’s responsible for the noise of the firearm. Firing a gun underwater is one way to see the blast wave, though it is far from the only way. In fact, a blast wave viewed underwater is not equivalent to one in air.  The differences in density and compressibility between the two fluids mean that, while the general form may be similar, the specifics and the results may not be. In general, a blast wave underwater is much more damaging than one in air. (Video credit: destinsw2/Smarter Every Day; requested by nikhilism)

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