Magnus Force

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Physics students are often taught to ignore the effects of air on a projectile, but such effects are not always negligible. This video features several great examples of the Magnus effect, which occurs when a spinning object moves through a fluid. The Magnus force acts perpendicular to the spin axis and is generated by pressure imbalances in the fluid near the object’s surface. On one side of the spinning object, fluid is dragged with the spin, staying attached to the object for longer than if it weren’t spinning.  On the other side, however, the fluid is quickly stopped by the spin acting in the direction opposite to the fluid motion. The pressure will be higher on the side where the fluid stagnates and lower on the side where the flow stays attached, thereby generating a force acting from high-to-low, just like with lift on an airfoil. Sports players use this effect all the time: pitchers throw curveballs, volleyball and tennis players use topspin to drive a ball downward past the net, and golfers use backspin to keep a golf ball flying farther. (Video credit: Veritasium)

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