There’s an oft-repeated tale that science cannot explain how a bumblebee flies. And while that may have been true 80 years ago, when engineers assumed they could apply their knowledge of fixed-wing aircraft to insects, it’s very far from the truth now.
Being small, insects use aerodynamic tricks that are very different from the physics used by aircraft or even birds. Insects like fruit flies use a forward-and-backward sweeping motion at a very high angle of attack as they flap. This motion creates a vortex at the leading edge of the wing that provides the lift keeping the insect aloft. It still requires fast reflexes — most insects flap their wings hundreds of times a second — but the mechanism is robust enough to keep insects aloft and maneuverable. (Image credits: Robobee – K. Ma and P. Chirarattananon, simulation – F. T. Muijres et al., illustration – G. Lauder; via APS Physics)