What you see above is a homemade lava bomb. To systematically study what happens when groundwater meets lava, scientists melted basalt and created their own meter-scale explosion-on-demand. Inside the container, they can inject water and observe the resulting dynamics.
Beneath the lava, the water forms what scientists call a domain. Thanks to the Leidenfrost effect, it can be protected from direct contact with the lava by a thin vapor layer that boils off it. If the water domain is large enough, buoyancy will pull it upward through the lava. Whether the water maintains a spherical shape or begins to distort and break up into smaller domains depends on the speed of its rise.
At some point, though, either naturally or through an external trigger (like the sledgehammer you see above), the water and lava can contact, resulting in explosive vaporization of the water and an explosion. What’s visible at the surface depends on the depth at which the explosion takes place. Scientists are eager to characterize these variations, which will help them better predict the explosive danger of eruptions like Kilauea and Eyjafjallajökull. (Image and research credit: I. Sonder et al.; video credit: NYTimes; submitted by Kam-Yung Soh)