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Atomization–breaking a flowing liquid into a fine spray–is important for fuel injection in a variety of engines, including automobiles, jet engines, ramjets, scramjets, and rockets. The more effectively a liquid fuel can be dispersed as a spray in an engine, the more efficient and stable the combustion will be. The apparatus in this high-speed video injects an annular water sheet with concentric jets of air on either side of the water. The video series shows the effects of increasing the outer and inner air velocities relative to the water on the breakup of the liquid. What to the naked eye looks like a deluge, high-speed video reveals as a complex undulating structure.

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