Granular Jet

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Sometimes the similarity between fluid flow and granular flows is quite striking. This video shows a stream of sand falling down a tube and impacting a rod. (Note: the view is rotated 90 degrees counter-clockwise, so down points to the right.) As the sand strikes the rod, it’s deflected into a conical sheet, very much like a water bell. There are even ripple-like instabilities that form in the granular sheet, though they move differently than in a liquid due to the sand’s lack of surface tension. (Video credit: S. Nagel et al.)

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