Supersonic Bubble Shock Waves

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Supercomputing has been an enormous boon to fluid dynamics over the past few decades. Many problems, like the interaction between a supersonic shock wave and a bubble, are too complicated for analytical solutions and difficult to measure experimentally. Numerical simulation of the problem, combined with visualization of key variables, adds invaluable understanding. Here a shock wave strikes a helium bubble at Mach 3, and the subsequent interactions in terms of density and vorticity are shown. This situation is relevant to a number of applications, such as supersonic combustion and shockwave lithotripsy–a medical technique in which kidney stones are broken up inside the body using shock waves. After impact, an air jet forms and penetrates the center of the structure while the outer regions mix and form a persistent vortex ring. (Video credit: B. Hejazialhosseini et al.; via Physics Buzz)

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