Bow Shock over a Perforated Plate

This schlieren image shows a sphere traveling at Mach 3 over a perforated plate. The bow shock in front of the sphere is clearly visible, as is its reflection off the plate. The pressure caused by the bow shock produces a series of spherical acoustic waves below the plate. A tiny vortex ring moves downward from each hole, followed at the right by a secondary ring moving upward from the holes in the plate. (Photo credit: U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory; reprinted in Van Dyke’s An Album of Fluid Motion)

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